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The history of Tashkent —capital of the Republic of Uzbekistan - totals 2200 years for which it has passed away from a tiny ancient oasis to the largest city of Central Asia. For the first time Tashkent (in translation from Uzbek - «stone city»), is mentioned in ancientashkent2.jpgt eastern chronicles of the II nd century BC (They sp called Tashkent as - Chach, Binkent, Shash in the ancient time. According to Abu Raykhan Beruni and Mahmud Kashgari, actually name Tashkent appeared for the first time in Turkic sources of the IX-XII th centuries. Advantageous geographical position in a valley of the river Chirchik and favorable climate allowed Tashkent to become one of the main cities through passing the Great Silk Road — the most important trading highway of ancient world. Destiny of Tashkent stood out as extremely dramatic. It was constantly besieged by conquerors due to that it was a rich trading city and it seldom belonged to itself. In the VII th century Tashkent was "summer" capital Western Turkic khaganat, and in the VIII th century it was occupied by Arabs. At the beginning of the XIII th century, on eve of Mongolian gain, oasis of Shash was almost completely destroyed by armies of Khorezm shah Muhammad. In the XIV-XV th centuries the city again revived as shopping and cultural center of Timur and Timurids empire, intensively expanding and turning into one of the largest cities of that time. In the XVI th century Tashkent belonged to Sheybanids during their ruling there were constructed original architectural masterpieces which have remained still. Next century Tashkent was occupied by Imam Kuli khan of Bukhara. At the beginning of the XIX th century, city was taken over by Kokand Khan Alim khan. After in summer of 1865 Tashkent was occupied by armies of Russian Empire, a new era in the history of city had began. Tashkent became main railway junction and most important administrative center of Central Asia. Since 1930 Tashkent – is the capital of Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic which was a part of USSR. Andtashkent1.jpg on September 1, 1991 there was a critical event in the history of the city – there was proclaimed independence of the Republic of Uzbekistan that opened absolutely new prospects for development and prosperity of Tashkent. Literally, in the face of tremendous high-rise buildings, new parks, museums, fountains began to appear. City commenced to change architectural shape, thus keeping traditions of national architecture. Many tests fell to Tashkent – such as wars, invasions, natural disasters. In 1966 the strongest earthquake nearly destroyed it. But incredible efforts of citizens and help of fraternal peoples revived the city - it became still more beautiful and more comfortable. And today before eyes of tourists Tashkent appears as an original pearl of the East, harmoniously combining in old and new architecture: unique medieval monuments of architecture and ultramodern constructions of the XXI th century.

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