According to history at the end of the nineteenth century in Samarkand Russian theater started to be erected. City had met tour rounds of different theatrical companies since 1872. Amateur troupe of Samarkand acted in city on October 15, 1876. It was statement of Russian classical comedy of D. S. Fonvizin "Greenhorn". Performance was made by amateur - Piteev-Pronsky.
Main frame of Samarkand Russian drama theater consisted of theater amateurs. Actor and director Alexander Yurenev-Limantov was a Head. He created theater studio in which studied Faina Ranevskaya, Nikolay Moskvin, V.Rzhevskaya, N Rubensky and others.
In 1918 on a scene of theater there was a firth night (premiere) of performance on play of A.N.Ostrovskiy "Thunder-storm". After that according to decision of the State commission folk theater became State theater.
After in 1924 Samarkand became the capital of Uzbekistan, the theater got its status of Republican State Dramatic Theater. On its scene were played modern dramas of foreign and Soviet authors, along with classic ones.
In 1930 there was a transfer of capital to Tashkent city, many directors and actors of theater were transferred to Tashkent theater. Due to these changes the theater received a new name –Samarkand Regional Theater.
On February 14, 1978 theater was named after A.P. Chekhov. The same year staff of theater moved to a new room in which works and now. This two-storeyed building located in street Ipak yuli, 45. Places for audience in the theater – 342.
For merits in theater development by decree of Presidium of Supreme Council of USSR, Russian Dramatic Theatre named after A.P. Chekhov of Samarkand city was awarded an order a labor Red banner.