In northern part of Samarkand there is history museum "Afrosiab". It was opened in 1970. The museum is devoted to history of Samarkand basis. Near a museum there is ancient site of ancient settlement Afrosiab. It is very large archaeological monument.
Exhibits of museum of Samarkand history are – artifacts which were found at excavation on ancient site of old settlement and belong to different periods of history. These are unique frescos of Ikhshid Palace of 7-8 centuries, and also ceramics, coins, ossuariy, remains of ancient arrows, knifes and blades.
A building of museum was constructed according to project of Armenian architect Bagdasar Arzumanyan. In a museum there are five thematic halls which are devoted to various periods of life of ancient site of ancient settlement Afrosiab. In the first hall it is possible to get familiarized with history of archeological excavations passing to territory of a site of ancient settlement which were begun in the nineteenth century. On Afrosiab's relief map which is established in hall, we may see all monuments and archaeological objects. The second hall is devoted to early history of Samarkand which originates from the sixth century BC. Here tools from metal and stone, model of potter's furnace, and also ancient ware are exposed. In the third hall of a museum visitors are given a chance to get acquainted with historical period of ruling of the city by Alexander the Great in 329 BC. Here established models of fortifications of ancient city, showing image of Afrosiab siege by the great commander. As exhibits pieces of framework from tree of fortifications, products from stone, ware, weapon, coins here are exposed. Exhibits exposed in fourth hall are devoted to an era of 1-4 centuries. They in the best way reflect spiritual life of citizens which at that time professed Zoroastrism. It is also devoted to spiritual life of inhabitants of Samarkand and the fifth hall of a museum. Here it is possible to see wall inscriptions, subjects concerning cult of fire, house chapel, fragments of sculptures from tree and many other things.